The Garden Guide

Book: Landscape Gardening in Japan, 1912
Chapter: Chapter 2. Garden Stones

Hill stones represent distant mountains

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HILL STONES. The raised parts of a Japanese garden are intended to represent the nearer eminences or distant mountains of natural scenery, and the stones which adorn them express either minor undulations and peaks, or rocks and boulders on their slopes. The principal hill-stones are as follows:� "Mountain-summit Stone" (Sancho-seki),�placed on or near the summit of a hill. "Mountain-base Stone" (Reikiaku-seki),�situated near the base of a hill. "Mountain-side Stone" (Sanyo-seki), and "Mountain Path Stone" (Hioin-seki),�both arranged on the slope of a hill. "Propitious Cloud Stone" (Keiun seki),�placed on a hill-top. "Mist-enveloped Stone" (Muin-seki), "Clear Moon Stone" (Seigetsu-seki), "Moon Shadow Stone" (Getsu-in-seki), and "Cave Stone" (Teito-seki), or Taido-seki),� all occupying different positions on the sides of hills, the "Cave Stone" being always near the "Kwannon Stone." "Kwannon Stone" (Kwannon-seki), is the name given to a stone symbolical of Kwannon, a deity worshipped on mountain heights, and often represented as seated in a cave; this is also placed on the side of a hill. "Moss-grown Stone" (Seitai-seki),�placed near the base of a hill, but only employed when water is represented beneath. Of the above names, the first five refer to position and are self-explanatory; the remainder mostly allude to certain effects in mountain scenery which the stones are supposed to typify.