The Garden Guide

Book: Landscape Gardening in Japan, 1912
Chapter: Chapter 12. Garden Composition

Semi elaborate Hill Gardens Tsukiyama

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Plate XXVI., which illustrates a Hill Garden of the intermediary or semi-elaborated style, will next be explained. Only four hills are introduced into this design. By comparison, the Hills 1, 2, 3, and 5, in Plate XXV will be recognisable, but are merged into one hillock of varied undulations. The "Distant Peak," "Near Mountain," and "Mountain Spur" are just suggested by the outline, a resemblance which is aided by the grouping of the stones, trees, and cascade. Hill 4 occupies a position in the foreground corresponding to that in the finished style, but it is larger in size, on the principle of using rougher and bolder detail in the less elaborate model. Stones 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, correspond in position, names, and functions to those of Plate XXV. It may be observed, however, that Stone 5�the "Waiting Stone"�has been merged into one with the Water Basin, which in the former Plate existed separately; also, that other stones have been enlarged in scale. In accordance with the same method of bolder and more sketchy treatment, the numerous auxiliary stones, having no special names or functions, but which are considered necessary to unite together the important rocks and add detail in the finished style, are here much reduced in number, and enlarged in proportionate size. In this way they occasionally attain sufficient importance to receive special names. For example, Stone 10, at the side of the wooden bridge, called the "Bridge-edging Stone," takes the place of four or five secondary stones in the more elaborate garden. Also, Stone 11, which is called the "Distance-screening Stone," has no counterpart in Plate XXV. Moreover, though there are numerous small rocks at the base of the cascade in the finished style, only one is specially named; but in the intermediary style may be observed two good-sized rocks, (Nos. 12 and 13), one vertical and the other horizontal in character, and each mated with another rock of opposite nature; but there are no other secondary stones. (Hill 1. Near Mountain. Hill 2. Companion Mountain. Hill 3. Mountain Spur. Hill 4. Near Hill. Hill 5. Distant Peak. Tree 1. Principal Tree. Tree 2. Tree of Setting Sun. Tree 3. Tree of Solitude, Tree 4. Cascade Screening Tree. A. Kasuga Lantern. B. Snow-scene Lantern. C, Wooden Bridge. Stone 1. Guardian Stone. Stone 2. Cliff Stone. Stone 3. Worshipping Stone. Stone 4. Perfect View Stone. Stone 5. Waiting Stone (as Basin.) Stone 6. Moon Shadow Stone. Stone 7. Cave Stone. Stone 8. Seat of Honour Stone. Stone 9. Pedestal Stone. Stone 10. Bridge-edge Stone. Stone 11. Distance Stone. Stone 12, 13. Cascade Stones.)