The Garden Guide

Book: Landscape Gardening in Japan, 1912
Chapter: Chapter 12. Garden Composition

Intermediary Flat Garden style Hira niwa

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The intermediary style of Flat Garden, (see Plate XXIX.), though not differing so much in scale from the finished style as in the case of Hill Gardens, is somewhat bolder in treatment than the more elaborate example. The feeling of open expanse in the centre, as expressed in the previous example, is missing. In the middle of the composition is the "Guardian Stone" No. 1, and in front of it is No. 3, the "Seat of Honour Stone," the two forming part of a group with a stone pagoda, pine tree, and some low shrubs and plants, No. 3 is the "Moon Shadow Stone," placed in a remote part of the garden, and paired with a flat stone. No. 4 is the "Worshipping Stone," and No. 5, a pair of stones together called the "Stone of the Setting Sun," on account of their position in the west. Stone 6 is the "Stone of the Two Gods," in a similar position to that in the previous example. No. 7, the "Pedestal Stone," and No. 8, the "Label Stone," form the principal features of the arrangement of stepping stones which encircle the central part of the grounds, branching towards the garden gate in the west, and to the well in the east, their junction being marked by a large oblong step in front of the verandah of the house. The bare space in the centre of the garden suggests water, but of less extent than in Plate XXVIII., and the "Worshipping Stone" typifies an island. The well is more primitive in style, being made of roughly hewn stone, and adorned with an overhanging dwarf pine and neighbouring water plants. The arrangement of the water basin, fence, and lantern near the verandah is much as before, but a bolder scale and somewhat rougher forms are employed. Two other stone lanterns are shown; one in the east background, grouped with some rocks and a small clump of trees�No. 3, representing the "Tree of Solitude;" and another near a clump of bamboos and shrubs on the west, indicating No. 2, the "Tree of the Evening Sun." The large pine tree No. 1, near the "Worshipping Stone," is the "Principal Tree," and No. 4, overspreading the well, is the "Stretching Pine." (Stone 1, Guardian Stone. Stone 2. Seat of Honour Stone. Stone 3. Moon Shadow Stone. Stone 4. Worshipping Stone. Stone 5. Stone of the Setting Sun. Stone 6. Stone of the Two Gods. Stone 7. Pedestal Stone. Stone 8. Label Stone. Tree 1. Principal Tree. Tree 2. Tree of the Evening Sun. Tree 3. Tree of Solitude. Tree 4. Stretching Pine. A. Stone Pagoda. B. Well. c. Water Basin. D. Stone Lantern. E. Garden Gate.)