The Garden Guide

Book: History of Garden Design and Gardening
Chapter: Chapter 3: European Gardens (500AD-1850)

Forestry in Russia

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4. Russian Gardening, in respect to the Culture of Timber Trees and hedges 475. Forest or hedge planting is scarcely known in Russia. There are yet abundance of natural forests, chiefly of birch, lime, and Scotch pine, for timber and fuel, and in the northern parts, where no system of pasturage can take place, enclosures are not now, and probably never will be, of any use. Hedges are in use in the gardens of the capital, and of the city of residence. The time is not yet come for planting the sides of the high roads, though that would be a grand feature of improvement. In some governments, towards the south, this has been partially done in a few places, by stakes of the silvery- leaved willow; but the trembling poplar, birch, and lime, are the proper trees for the northern parts; and the cherry, alder, sycamore, oak, elm, walnut, &c., may be introduced in advancing southward. The prevalent timber trees on the borders of the Gulf of Finland are the following, the most common being first in order:-Pinus sylvestris, Pinus A'bies, Betula alba, Betula A'lnus, Pupulus tre-mula; different Salices, Juniperus eommunis, Pyrus Aucuparia, Cerasus Padus, Rhamnus Frangula, Quercus Robur, Tilia europï¾µ'a, Pyrus Malus, A'cer campestre, Fraxinus excelsior, U'lmus campestris, Pinus Picea, Pinus Larix, Pinus Cembra, Pinus rubra Milleri. These last four grow on the coast of the White and the Frozen Seas. (Com. to Board of Agr., vol. i.) The native, shrubs in the same places are the following:-different Salices, Viburnum O'pulus, Corylus Avellana, Rosa canina, Betula nana, Daphne Mezereum, Ribes nigrum, Ribes rubrum, Rubus idï¾µ'us, Rubus fruticosus, Erica, vulgaris, Lonicera Xylosteum, Myrica Gale, Ledum palustre, A'rbutus U'va ursi, Andromeda calyculata, Vaccinium uliginosum. On the borders of the Frozen Sea are, Salix reticulata, Salix incubacea, A'rbutus alpinus, Andromeda tetragona, Diapensia lapponica, Azalea pro-cumbens, Andromeda cï¾µrulea, hypnoides, &c. &c. (Ibid.) The hedge plants and trees of the district of St. Petersburgh are few. The willow is indigenous, and its bark is used by the tanners; so is that of the birch. The white and Italian poplar will not stand the open air; but the Scotch pine and the aspen are indigenous, and quite hardy. Of shrubs, the common honeysuckle requires to be kept under glass; but the common lilac is so hardy that hedges are made of it. Robinia Caragana is equally hardy, and the leaves of both these plants are very seldom infested by insects. (Ibid.)