The Garden Guide

Book: Gardening Tools, Equipment and Buildings
Chapter: Chapter 6: Structures used in Gardening

Wooden espaliers

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2037. The wooden espalier, of the simplest kind, is merely a straight row of stakes driven in the ground at 6 or 8 inches asunder, and 4 or 5 feet high, and joined and kept in a line at top by a rail of wood, or iron hoop, through which one nail is driven into the heart of each stake.