Captions to the 1998 edition of Landscape planning and environmental impact design
0.1 Estimates of relative progress towards fully multi-use planning by those responsbile for land management in the UK from 1945-95. [progres2]
0.2 The river in Chartres: a delightful product of pre-industrial, old-fashioned, multi-purpose river planning.
0.3. The river in Bayreuth: an obnoxious consequence of modern, professionalised, single-purpose river planning. Having scrawled graffiti on their walls, the good citizens of Bayreuth should take heart from their cousins in Berlin, and tear them down.
Chapter 1. Will Planning Die?
1.1 Human societies, and planners, have privileged the way of the hunter over the way of the nester.
1.2 Scientifically based trend planning will produce a world in which isolated structures are surrounded by oceans of blacktop. The Dartford Tunnel (above), Dumfries (middle) and Lakeside on the Edge of London (below)
1.3 Plato's Cave Analogy suggests that we live as prisoners, chained in an underground cave, only seeing shadows cast on the cave wall. [Cave]
1.4 In the twentieth century, science and technology saddled the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. This drawing shows the occasion of the battle (23rd April 1918) in which tank first met tank. After destroying their own kind, seven tanks killed four hundred infantrymen. The tank crews were then massacred.
1.5 In origin, 'to plan' means to make a two-dimensional projection on a plane surface.
1.6 The geographers' use of 'landscape' - Siccar Point in Berwickshire. Towards the end of the nineteenth century biologists and geographers began to use 'landscape' to mean 'a tract of land, considered as a product of shaping processes and agents'. The geological non-conformity at Siccar Point was used, by James Hutton, to prove that the world was made over an immense period of time.
1.7 The artists' use of 'landscape' - Claude's Jacob with Laban and his Daughters. Artists used the word 'landscape' to mean 'a picture representing natural inland scenery'. Such paintings usually contained buildings and showed men living in harmony with nature. (Courtesy of the Governors of Dulwich Picture Gallery).
1.8 The designers' use of 'landscape' - Blenheim Park is one of the great eighteenth century English 'landscapes'. It was designed, by Lancelot Brown, to be an ideal place where the owner could live in harmony with nature.
1.9 The Outlook Tower was founded by Patrick Geddes to give an overview of the Edinburgh region. It symbolises his belief in the Survey-Analysis-Plan methodology.
1.10 Early-modern planning: This 1933 redevelopment proposal for Dundee, in Scotland, is a fine example of 'city beautiful' planning. The aim was to modernise the ancient city centre by introducing wide roads and co-ordinated architecture.
1.11 High-modern planning: The 1948 plan for Crawley New Town demarcated the land into zones for town centre, residential, industrial, parkland and other land use zones.
1.12 Late-modern planning: Chadwick used this diagram to show the principle of 'A rational method of systematic planning, derived from scientific method' (Chadwick, 1978: 378. Courtesy of the author).
1.13 Three alternative ways of arranging land uses, shown by Venn diagrams: (a) mixed, (b) singular zoning, (c) plural zoning. [Ven1a]
1.14 Multi-use planning, represented by the pile of rubber bands, produces more compact cities than single-use planning .
1.15 Singular zoning for housing, river, industry, road and park. [file Vencht2]
1.16 The fantastic workings of a living organism ought not to be severed with a butcher's knife (from Christopher Tunnard Gardens in the modern landscape).
1.17 Stalinist 'housing' in Jena .
1.18 A GIS enables relationships between land uses to be mapped and analyzed as a set of Venn diagrams [venall1a]
1.19 A GIS is a spatial database. Areas on a map are produced from database tables, and vice-versa. [GIS]
1.20 Physical models, like GIS models, can show what the land was like in the past and what it could be like in the future. These models are of Dover (Courtesy of Dover Museum).
1.21 A GIS can store the information which administrators and businesses require [Ven2].
1.22 A GIS can be used to model the past, the present and the future [McHarg6]
1.23 Planning-on-paper will be replaced with planning-by-database, using areas, relationships and attributes. [Ven3]