The Garden Guide

Book: Landscape Gardening in Japan, 1912
Chapter: Chapter 2. Garden Stones

Cascade stones for waterfalls

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CASCADE STONES. The cascade is an almost indispensable feature of lake and river gardens, and even when water cannot be obtained, its position is indicated by means of rocks and stones. The following are the principal stones used in connection with real or imaginary falls:� "Guardian Stone" (Shugo-seki),�a large rock of the "Statue Stone" shape, backed with earth, and forming the principal part of the rocky cliff over which the water falls. This is the most important of all garden stones, and, in some form or other, is always introduced as the central feature of the near distance; it also often bears the alternative name of "Cascade-supporting Stone" (Taki-soye-ishi). "Stone of Fudo" (Fudo-seki),�named after a Buddhist deity, who is represented holding a sword and surrounded with flames, and to whom cascades are specially dedicated. The outlets of many natural falls, such as that of Urami-no-taki at Nikko, have the image of this god carved on the cliff. Sometimes a stone statuette is erected instead. In connection with garden cascades a vertical stone of natural formation, and of the "Statue Stone" shape, is used, which is supposed to represent Fudo. "Children Stones" (Doji-seki),�eight smaller stones often placed round the "Stone of Fudo," representing the spirits of children attendant upon the god. "Double Step Stone" (Nidan-seki),�a stone with a stepped top sometimes used to give a double fall to a torrent. "Cascade-embracing Stone" (Taki-hasami-ishi),�a rock, flanking the outlet of a water-fall, which may be appropriately called the "Cliff Stone." It is paired with the "Guardian Stone." "Mirror Stone" (Kagami-ishi),�another name occasionally applied to the "Cliff Stone" on account of its wet polished surface. "Cascade Basin Stone" (Takilsubo-ishi),�a flattish stone placed in the pool to receive the falling water. "Current-dividing Stone" (Namiwake-ishi),�fixed in the torrent at the base of a cascade. "Water-dividing Stone" (Mizuwake-ishi), and "Water-receiving Stone" (Mizu-uke-ishi), are other terms given to stones which are used in the torrent or secondary falls below a cascade.