197. The caterpillars of different insects are found very injurious to trees of every kind in the Netherlands; and an edict is therefore published annually by government, ordering all the proprietors of lands to clear off the caterpillars from their trees twice a year; viz. before the 25th of March and before the 25th of April, under pain of the infliction of a certain penalty fixed by law. (Gard. Mag., vol. ii. p. 349.) This operation is effected by cutting off the spray in March, and in April both the spray and the young leaves, with what they call the echenilloir. (Ibid. vol. i. p. 325.) This instrument is very correctly figured in Van der Groen's Jardinier des Pays Bas (fig. 43.), and is there described as being well adapted both for cutting off the nests of caterpillars and for gathering pears.