1696. The turf spade (fig. 328. p. 518.) consists of a cordate or scutiform blade, joined to a handle by a kneed or bent iron shank. It is used for cutting turf from old sheep-pastures, with a view to its being employed either for turfing garden-grounds, or being thrown together in heaps to rot into mould. It is also used in removing ant-hills and other inequalities in sheep-pastures, in parks, or rough lawns. A thin section often is first removed, then the protuberance of earth beneath it is taken out, and the section is replaced, which, having been cut thin, especially on the edges, readily refits; and the operation is finished by a gentle pressure by the foot, back of the spade, beetle, or roller. One variety of the turf-spade (fig. 316.) has one edge turned up, and made quite sharp: this spade is preferable where the turves are to be cut square-edged, and somewhat thick.