The Garden Guide

Book: Gardening Science - Soils, Manure and the Environment
Chapter: Chapter 1: Earths and Soils

Surface soil and subsoil

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1144. All lands capable of cultivation have what is called a surface soil resting upon the rock or subsoil; and this surface soil is generally composed partly of a portion of the rock beneath, which has been decomposed by the action of the weather, and partly of decayed animal and vegetable substances, which have become accidentally mixed with the decomposed rock.