87. At length the dawn of light appeared with the art of printing, A.D. 1440. Commerce began to flourish in Italy and Holland; and the arts of peace to prevail. Soon after this period the European part of what was formerly the Roman empire gradually assumed those political divisions, which it, for the greater part, still retains. We shall take a cursory view of the progress of gardening in each of these states, from the dark ages to the present day.