Fruit tree training

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190.Standard fruit trees in Holland and the Netherlands are very generally trained in what is called the en quenouille or distaff manner; and the advantages of this mode, as respects the saving of room, and the avoiding injurious shade to the vegetables near, are obvious. It is not, however, equally clear that this form is favourable to the production of fruit. A horticulturist (Gard. Mag., vol. ii. p. 226.), who has resided for some time in Belgium, says a fair crop is very seldom seen on trees so trained. The same observation will apply to standard pear trees trained en pyramide; which mode of training differs from the en quenouille mode only in not having the points of the young shoots tied down by cords attached to their extremities and fastened to the stem of the tree. Pear trees trained en pyramide, however, when grafted on quince stocks, generally bear well.