The landscape, architecture and urban design of floods demands attention. Bangladesh has regular floods; Pakistan was devastated in 2010; Australia and Brazil were inundated in January 2011. It is time to act. Each time there is a flood we should examine the evidence of which properties were flooded and which properties, relatively speaking, escaped flood damage. Historical research can also help. There are many historical precedents:
Egypt used to flooded every year, until the Aswan High Dam was built. Some villages and towns were protected by being designed on mounds. Other villages were surrounded by mud walls which could have been sealed in preparation for floods. The urban pattern was therefore cellular and this gave protection against floods
The Flood Tablet, which may have inspired the Bible story of The Flood, told of an especially devastating flood. In more normal times, the first towns known to history were protected by being built on hills (called Tels, or Tells) and, like other walled urban settlements were designed to be protect from flooding by their walls.
The urban settlements of ancient China were designed for protection against floods, as well as against invaders, by thick, high mud walls. The gates were sealed against floods with mounds
Lake Dal, in Kashmir, floods every year - so those who do not live on higher land live on boats. Electricity is distributed by wires high above the maximum flood level.
The Polder region of the Western Netherlands is below the level of the North Sea. It has been flooded many times in the past and must be expected to flood many times in the future. The Dutch recognize this and are taking urban design precautions against flooding.
The region between the Himalayas tne the Bay of Bengal floods regularly. The problem has not been solved, and probably cannot be solved. The Terrai region has responded to the problem by building many of its roads on embankments. They serve to protect some compartments from flooding; they provide a refuge for those whose homes have been flooded and they provide a flood-resistant communication system
SURELY WE CAN LEARN FROM HISTORY AND CREATE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE SOLUTIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF FLOOD-RESISTANT URBAN DESIGN SOLUTIONS