Civilisation began in North East Africa and the Middle East. Egyptian law has a longer history than any other civilisation has yet achieved. It was proclaimed and maintained by pharoahs who were both Gods and kings. The dynastic history of Egypt can be divided into three 'periods' or 'kingdoms' (old, middle and new), with several intermediate periods of unsettled rule. It was not the oldest of the ancient civilisations.
Earliest Dynasties: I, 3200-3000; 11, 3000-2780.
Old Kingdom (Old Period): III, 2780-2720; IV, 2720-2560; V, 2560-2420; VI, 2420- 2270.
First Intermediate Period: VII and VIII, 2270-2240; IX and X, 2240-2100.
Middle Kingdom (Middle Period): XI, 2100-2000; XII,
Second Intermediate Period:
XIlI-XVI, 1788-1600; XVII, 1600- 1555.
New Kingdom (New Period or Empire): XVIII, 1555-1350; XIX, 1350-1200; XX, 1200-1090; XXI, 1090-945; XXII, 945-c. 745; XXIII, c, 745-718; XXIV, 718-712
Late Period: XXV, 712-663; XXVI. 663-525 (from 663 to 610 Egypt subject to Assyria); XXVII (Persian), 525-332; Egyptian rebellion, which ousted the Persians, established XXVIII, 405-399; XXIX, 399-379; XXX, 379-34 1. In 332 Egypt conquered by Alexander the Great, at whose death (323) Ptolemy established the Greek dynasty.
A painting of Abu Simbel, before Lake Nasser forced UNESCO to move the monument to a new location in the 1960s. The four colossal statues (20m) were carved out of a sandstone cliff by Ramases II (ruled 1304-1273 BC during the period of the New Kingdom) and served as the entrance to a temple.
|Age of Universe||12 billion years|
|Age of Solar System||5 billion years|
|Earliest Life on Earth||3.8 billion years|
|Man (Australopithicus anamensis)||4 million years|
|Homo erectus began to leave Africa||1-2 million years|
|Homo sapiens||400,000 years|
|Homo sapiens 'Out of Africa'||100,000 years|
|Other Homo species extinct||30,000 years|
|Oldest settlements||10,000 years BCE|
|Oldest cities||5,000 years BCE|