||Agriculture brought about a chain of
innovations: settlements, trade, pottery, weaving, stone tools.
||Palestine and south Syria
||A Mesolithic people who lived partly in caves
and partly in incipient villages. a developed Neolithic
civilisation existed in Jericho by 8,000BC
||Elam is the Biblical name for the people of
south west Iran. There were agriculture and villages.
||Southern Mesopotamia; Umma, Lagash, Uruk and Ur
||They may have come from the Iranian highlands. As settlers, they cleared forests and built canals. Their innovations included wheeled carts, sailboats, plows, smelting and writing. Power centered on city-states. They built towns, temples and ziggurats.
||Earliest Dynasties: I, 3200-3000; 11,
3000-2780. Old Kingdom III, 2780-2720; IV, 2720-2560; V,
2560-2420; VI, 2420-2270. Middle Kingdom XI, 2100-2000;
||Palestine and Lebanon
||As a seaborne people, they colonised North
Africa. Invented a phonetic script c1500BC which became the
basis of the western alphabet..
||The Indo-Europeans (Ayrans) were nomads from
near the Caspian Sea. They domesticated the horse c3000BC. They
invented a 2-wheeled chariot c1700BC
||By 2,000BC the Aryans established a Hittite
civilisation in Anatolia.
||Akkad is near Babylon
||Led by King Sargon of Akkad, the people were
semitic and came from further north. Now extinct, the Akkadian
language was spoken from 3rd to 1st millennium BC.
||The Babylonians re-united the Akkadian empire.
Hammurabi ruled from 1792BC.
||New Kingdom : XVIII, 1555-1350; XIX,
1350-1200; XX, 1200-1090; XXI, 1090-945; XXII, 945-c. 745;
XXIII, c, 745-718; XXIV, 718-712
||Iraq, centred on Mosul
||Introduced cavalry into Middle Eastern warfare
and were famed for their cruelty. . Tiglath-pileser III, Sargon
II and Sennacherib united most of the region from Egypt to the
Gulf. The capital, Ninevah, fell in 612BC
||The tribe of Judah was displaced by the
Assyrians and took possession of the Promised land as one of the
12 tribes if Israel
||Media (northwest Iran)
||An invasion of Assyria, helped by the
Babylonians, put an end to the Assyrian empire.
||Took control of Babylon in 626BC.
||The first Persian empire was ruled by the
Achaemenids after Cyrus II broke free of the Medes