Life depends on water and gardens depend on water. The search for water on the Moon and Mars reminds us that water is Earth's most valuable asset. Fresh water is more precious:
Water deserves to be celebrated in gardens:
The 'Hanging Gardens of Babylon' (now thought to have been in Nineveh *) were on a hill in a near-rainless country. This is what made them so famous. Plant growth was made possible by an ingenious screw device which pumped water up from the River Tigris. It then splashed down Kuyunjik Hill irrigating the fruit trees as it passed.
Modern gardners appear to have an easier time of it. They either accept water from the sky or turn on the tap. But:
The more appealing policy is to design for Zero Runoff. As much water as possible should be retained within the garden boundary:
Then one can start thinking about fountains. But take care! Fountains are at their best on hot sunny days. On cold windy days in northern countries the splashing of a fountain can add to the gloom. The spray looks like rain and sounds like rain. The inhabitants of these lands should give serious thought to mountain streams. Bubbling and swirling have the energy to remind us that winters come to an end and summers follow.