493. Planting, in Poland, is but little required for purposes of utility. Some public avenues have been formed near Warsaw and Posen; and the elm, one of the best avenue trees, thrives at both places. There are scarcely any hedges in the country, except in gardens, and near towns. The larch tree grows to a very large size in some parts of Poland, and trees have been cut down which, when cleared of the branches and bark, were eighty-four feet long, thirty-six inches in diameter at the broad, and eighteen inches at the small end. The leaves of the pine have been used in tanning leather. A school of forest culture has been established at Warsaw by Count Louis Plater, who has greatly improved the system of managing natural woods.